When designing and operating a thermal power plant, the by-products and their effects have to be heavily considered.
Waste heat energy, which remains due to the finite efficiency of the power cycle, is released directly into the atmosphere, directly to river or lake water, or indirectly into the atmosphere using a cooling tower with river or lake water used as a cooling medium. Synthetex’s HYDROTEX® Fabric Formed Concrete mattresses are often used as erosion protection for the side slopes of water cooling channels and retention basins.
Fly ash, or flue-ash, is a residue generated typically in coal combustion that makes up the fine particles that rise with flue gases. Ash that does not rise is called bottom ash.
Fly ash is generally stored at coal power plants or placed in landfills. HYDROTEX® Fabric Formed Concrete mattresses are often used as erosion protection for the side slopes of fly ash containment and settling ponds.
About 43% is recycled as pozzolan. Fly ash is often used as a pozzolan and partial replacement for Portland cement in the production of fine aggregate concrete. Pozzolans ensure the setting of concrete and provide concrete with more protection from wet conditions and chemical attack. The fine aggregate concrete utilized for filling of HYDROTEX® fabric forms typically replaces up to 35% of the cement content with fly ash.